In our studies, We defined the concept of social reputation and aimed to estimate the effect of social reputation on likability, trust, preference of interpersonal relationship. To accomplish these goal, photographs of 12 persons(six young unmarried man, six young unmarried women) volunteered were shown to 60 raters, and the one male and one female pictures of scores of facial attractiveness are nearest to median were selected as experimental figures in preliminary study. After this, We asked 260 raters to assess likability, trust, preference of interpersonal relationship after showing raters the chosen pictures of man and woman and telling scenario of positive, negative reputation about these two persons. The outcomes showed that in both men and women, likability, trust, preference of persons who gained positive reputation were significantly higher than persons gained negative reputation. Facial attractiveness was effect on likability, trust, and preference, but effect size of reputation was much higher on likability, interpersonal preference, especially trust level. Also, in three-way ANCOVA results, Woman has showed higher likability and trust than man under the condition of good reputation in both woman was rater and object to be assessed, but on the contrary, likability, trust, and preference of woman were lower than man in either woman was rater or object to be judged under the bad reputation,. Lastly, this study's implications and limitations were discussed.
The Purpose of this study is to understand phases and paradigms related to voluntary services offered by undergraduates and the processes in which voluntary services are implemented. For this, interviews for 23(men: 10, women: 13) undergraduates were conducted from Aug., 2008 to Apr., 2009 were conducted and the data collected from those interviews were analyzed on the basis of the Grounded Theory. Main analysis procedure is known as codings(open coding, axial coding, selective coding). This analyses produced 119 concepts, 41 subcategories, and 16 categories in open coding. Then, axial coding was conducted to organize the basic framework of generic relationships among psychological motivation, social context, personal perception, practical action, psychological response, and psychological consequence. Core essence is “Volunteer types are categorized simple practice type, self-serving type, and community type.” Finally, undergraduate volunteers were explained in 3 types(simple practice, self-serving, and community) on the basis of paradigms. These results were discussed in terms of further research and limitation.
The objectives of the present research are twofold. First, this research aims to compare the effect of trait characteristics(sensation seeking, social resistance and type-A behavior) with that of driving specific characteristics(driving anger and type-A driving) on problematic driving behavior. Second, the role of life stress as a mediator in the relationships between general trait characteristics and traffic safety index was examined. 1158 licensed commercial vehicle drivers were surveyed and their accident-related records were obtained in this research. Results showed that driving specific characteristics were significant indicators of traffic safety and life stress mediated the relationships between general trait characteristics and traffic safety index. These findings implicate that understanding drivers' driving specific characteristics and their levels of life stress is important to reduce problematic driving behaviors and enhance traffic safety.
This study examines how anonymity between drivers affects aggressive driving and why, in an anonymous situation, some drive aggressively and others do not. Two surveys were conducted. The first survey covered 200 participants and found that people are more likely to drive aggressively in an anonymous situation than in a face-to-face situation. The second survey covered 384 participants with a history of aggressive driving and found that these aggressive drivers could be classified into three groups using a two-step cluster analysis. Drivers who often exhibit aggressive driving in anonymous situations were found in the second questionnaire to have a high tendency towards driving anger and towards ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. The tendency towards self-defensive ambivalence factor, one of the factors in the ambivalence over emotional expressiveness questionnaire, was also found to be high. Individuals who tended to drive aggressively in an anonymous situation were found to be susceptible to driving anger, usually faced ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and typically were indecisive. The results of this study suggest that rather than intensifying the enforcement of traffic regulations, a better remedy for those who drive recklessly would be to have them undertake some candid self-reflection.
This study investigated the objective and perceived level of economy and its relationship with mother's mental health, parenting behaviors, and problem behaviors in preschoolers. Data drawn from mothers and teachers of 238 preschoolers, ages 3-5, were used. Using the objective and perceived level of economy, subjects were classified into four groups. Individuals categorized as high by objective and perceived level of economy, low by objective and perceived level of economy, high by objective and low by perceived level of economy, and low by objective and high by perceived level of economy were categorized as in-agreement/high group, in-agreement/low group, over-estimator group, and under-estimator group, respectively. To investigate the difference between groups, one-way ANOVAs and post-hoc analyses were used. The results showed that in-agreement/low group and under-estimator group showed greater depression and anxiety than in-agreement/high group and over-estimator group. In addition, in-agreement/high group and over-estimator group showed greater affective parenting behaviors and lower aggressive parenting behaviors than in-agreement/low group and under-estimator group. In terms of internalizing problem behavior by mother, in-agreement/high group and over-estimator group were lower than under-estimator group. In terms of externalizing problem behavior by mother, in-agreement/high group was lower than under-estimator group. However, in terms of internalizing and externalizing problem behavior by teacher, there was no difference between groups. In externalizing problem behavior by teacher, in-agreement/low group was lower than over-estimator group.