The purpose of this study was development of a synthetic scale to measure young adults' views of life and death. Participants were 610 university students. The authors developed a View of Life and Death Scale including several subscales of afterlife views(belief in afterlife and retribution, belief in souls' effects and transmigration), meanings of death(liberation, nature, integration, collapse, impact, futility), death anxiety, death concern(death acceptance, death awareness) and life respect will(suicide inhibition, abortion inhibition, organ donation intention). The present study contributed to enhance our understanding of view of life and death in young adulthood. This study, therefore, could work as a stepping stone to investigate the structural relationship among elements included in views of life and death in young adulthood and to explore the consequences and determinants of personal view of life and death.
This study was conducted to explore how men's and women's self-construals do change according to gender-stereotype activation. The results showed that men have stronger gender-stereotypes and construe self more gender-stereotypic way than women. In general, women showed having less gender-stereotype but they construed self more stereotypic way. And the stereotype activation affected only on women to construe self less stereotypic way. Both men and women do accept physical appearance stereotypes more than other domains of gender-stereotype when they construe their selves. Gender-role stereotypes are more accepted by men than women, and gender-stereotypes of ability are more accepted by men but refused by women when stereotype was activated. And men accepted prescriptive gender-stereotype more than women. People of high gender-stereotype group construe self more stereotypic way than those of low stereotype group. But in low gender-stereotype group, women construe self less stereotypic way when stereotype is activated than when not. These results are taken to show, among others, that self-stereotyping of targets were different depending on whether the targets are man or woman, and that self stereotyping of an individual contributes to build a mechanism of maintaining gender-stereotype of a society to which he or she belongs.
This study examines factors that influence delinquency among adolescents under probation using indigenous psychological analysis, focusing specifically on parent-child relationship. A total 268 adolescents under probation and their parents and 251 high school students and their parents participated in the two studies. In the first study, qualitative results indicate that both groups of adolescents were most likely to trust their parents than any other person and reason for their trust is reported to be based on blood relationship. Similarly, majority of parents of both groups reported trusting their children because of the blood relationship. Parents hope that their children will be sincere a person and will be able to maintain harmonious social relationship. Parents of adolescents under probation were more likely to report disobedience as being most problematic, whereas parents of high school students were more likely report providing social and financial support for their children's education as being the most difficult. In the second study, structured questionnaires were administered to the four groups and the following set of results were obtained. First, in terms of family background, the socio-economic status of adolescents under probation was lower, they are less likely to live with both parents or natural parents, and more likely to have ran away from home than high school students. Second, adolescents under probation are less likely to trust their parents and more likely to view their parents as being hostile. Third, parents of adolescents under probation were less likely to trust their children, more likely to view their relationship as being conflictual and hostile, and feel that they had to sacrifice for their children when compared with parents of high school students. Implications of these results for parent-child relationship and delinquency are discussed.
The present research investigated and compared stress coping strategies of North Korean refugees with those of South Koreans in the purpose to predict and prepare psychological conflicts expected to occur during the Korean reunification. Adapted from Han, Hur, Chae, and Kim(2001), North Korean refugees recorded their coping strategies that they would employ in stressful situations varying in term of three aspects of stress causes - 2(locus: internal/external) × 2(stability: temporal/enduring) × 2(context: individual/interpersonal) - and the responses were classified in terms of three dimensions(active/passive, approach/avoidance, cognitive/affective/ behavioral). In the temporal stress situations, adaptive North Korean refugees preferred active over passive, approaching over avoiding, and behavioral over cognitive/affective stress coping strategies more than maladaptive North Korean refugees did. Also, in the stressful situations caused by external causes, they were more likely to take active rather than passive, approaching rather than avoiding copying. Although active copying strategies were preferred to passive ones by adaptive North Korean refugees in individual stressful situations, approaching copying strategies were preferred to avoiding ones by them in interpersonal stressful situations. These findings were found to be different from the pattern of South Korean's stress coping strategies in the same situations. In conclusion, the differences were discussed in the view of psychological integration during Korean reunification.