The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of depression in Korean American men and factors associated with the Korean American men's depression by examining how depression is affected by socio-demographic characteristics, immigration-related characteristics, and psychological and social characteristics. Socio-demographic characteristics include age, education, occupation, and monthly income. Immigration-related characteristics include years in the U. S., being U. S. citizens, and acculturation level. Psychological and social characteristics include anger, marital satisfaction, and social support. Using an availability sampling method, data were collected from 201 Korean American married men who were between the ages of 20 and 64 and resided in Los Angeles County. This study used a structured self-administered questionnaire. Due to the unreliable responses, five questionnaires were excluded from the study. Therefore 196 completed questionnaires were used for the data analyses. In order to measure the respondents' depression, the CES-D(Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression) was used in this study. In the hierarchical multiple regression analyses, monthly income, anger, marital satisfaction, and social support were significantly associated with the respondents' depression. However, there were no significant associations between depression and age, education, occupation, being a U. S. citizen, and acculturation. Implications of the findings for mental health practitioners and social works are discussed.
This study reviewed the present state and differences of rehabilitation programs of the gambling addiction by comparing with other psychiatric disorder(including psychotic disability and alcohol addiction). This study also intended to suggest necessities, meanings and inherent fields of the rehabilitation in gambling addiction. First of all, the government and a few gambling industries run clinic centers for gamblers and their families, but have been lacked rehabilitation services for social comeback and adaptation or devaluated rehabilitation services than therapies. Gambling addict didn't have impairments of the cognitive function and their daily abilities was better than any other psychiatric disorders. But Damage of social role or function of gambling addiction was severe. And it is caused by nonadaptive nature of gambling behavior, personality/emotional change through gambling addiction process, and previous personality problem etc. There are many severe failure of social role and its attendant bankrupcy, family's problems and social poverty in gambling addiction, Therefore, important fields in the rehabilitation of gambling addiction should be services for basic social comeback support service, credit recovery support, monetary management, support of rehabilitation of family and vocational rehabilitation. Finally, the significance and critical points of the current study has been discussed as well.
This study aimed to improve the Traffic Accident Management System's validity and reliability, so the system could help classify and judge the human factors that correlate with traffic accidents. We took traffic accident research and analysis systems of United States and United Kingdom and certain related, former studies into account in building our test system. Next, we used the test system's criteria to re-analyze 502 Gyeonggi province accident records from 2008. We compared the results to existing systems' results to verify the test system's validity and reliability. These results indicated the necessity of removing some uncertain items from the existing systems and adding in some new items from the test system. This should help improve understanding of what happens at traffic accident scenes and of the sources of drivers' abnormal, reckless behavior. We introduce suggestions for improving the Traffic Accident Management System and research concepts for further studies.
The purpose of this study was to examine how political interest, political ideologies, and information-searching goals influence the amount of information voters search, the ways in which people search for information about political candidates, and the type of information they select. The results showed that the participants under accuracy goal searched much more information and the participants under the high level of interest were not affected by conservative ideology, but the participants with the low level of interest were influenced by the liberal ideology and viewed substantially more information. And most of participants had the attribute-centered searching pattern. The social policies were accessed most, however, the information about party and personal background of a candidate were found least.
It is necessarily for a counselor's role to vary according to the cultures. While an autonomy is stressed in Western horizontal society, sociability is emphasized in Korea which is a vertical authoritarian society. What is more, a lot of people look to a counselor for elder's role as a teacher or a fosterer as well as a therapist. The two basic framework of Reality Dynamic Counseling which has been developed as a counseling approach for Korean are ‘presentization for problem’ and ‘elder's role of a counselor’. An elder's role of counselor showed in real counseling case is illustrated by ‘narrative methods’ in this study. The ‘story making methods’ as one of qualitative research methods is more useful than a protocol method which has been used in studying counseling case, because it has conciseness for original text of dialogs and commentary for counseling process. The seven characteristics of Reality Dynamic Counseling such as grasping the real cause, understanding mind,, emphasizing interpersonal factor, emphasis on role, utilizing confrontation, emphasizing the relationship of parent-child, and facilitating sociability are reflected in such an elder's role of counselor.
Previous psychological studies in gambling have mainly focused on the characteristics of gamblers. the purpose of the present study was to categorize gambles in Korea into subtypes based on winning probability and money and to examine variations of gambling behaviors and problems across the gamble subtypes. A survey on 1,304 gamble participants were conducted, of their gambling behaviors, personal and social problems, and CPGI. First, factor analyses on perceived winning probability and money revealed 6 subtypes of gambles: amusement type, lottery type, internet type, slot-machine type, racing type and casino type. Secondly, comparisons among gamble subtypes revealed the differences in gambling behaviors, gambling-related cognitions, emotional experiences during gambling, and personal/social problems related to gambling. The gambling behaviors in slot-machine type, racing type, and casino type were more negative than those in amusement type, and lottery type. Gamblers in internet type were found to have potential for latent problems of gambling. In discussion, the academic and practical values and implications of typology of gambles were further discussed.
In this study, the effects of skill-utilization based underemployment on self-esteem and mental health were examined. Also the moderating effects of employment commitment and social support were verified. Data obtained by a longitudinally designed survey with the reemployed (N=153) after job loss were used. The skill-utilization based underemployment was measured in two ways. One is measured in the way that use objective data, the ratio of education - ‘educational requirement for the current job’ divided by ‘individual educational attainment.’ The other is measured in the way that use psychological and self-reported measure, two factors of overqualification - the absence of opportunity for growth (no-growth) and the occupational mismatch in educational attainment, skills and experiences (mismatch). The main effect revealed that the no-growth made self-esteem lower and mental health (GHQ-social maladjustment) worse. The significant interaction of the ratio of education and employment commitment indicates that the negative effects of underemployment measured by the ratio of education on mental health (GHQ-social maladjustment, GHQ-depression/anxiety) were greater for those perceiving low employment commitment than for those perceiving high employment commitment. The significant interaction of the ratio of education and social support indicates that the negative effects of underemployment measured by the ratio of education on mental health (GHQ-depression/anxiety) were greater for those perceiving low social support than for those perceiving high social support. The two moderators also interacted with the two factors of perceived overqualification. Employment commitment had significant interaction effects with the no-growth and the mismatch on self-esteem and mental health (GHQ-depression/anxiety), whereas social support had a significant interaction only with the no-growth on mental health (GHQ-depression/anxiety). The significant interactions show that employment commitment and social support function as buffers in reducing the negative effects of skill-utilization based underemployment on self-esteem and mental health.
This study examines adolescent delinquent behavior and the influence of friends, focusing specifically on friends' delinquent behavior and the influence of self-efficacy, parent-child conflict and parental control. A total of 1,399 adolescents attending five different high schools (male=642, female=756, consisting of 915 student attending high school and 484 students attending vocational high school) completed a questionnaire developed by Ahn, Hwang, Kim and Park (1997) and Bandura's (1995a) self-efficacy scale. Results indicate that those students who attend high school had parents with higher education, socio-economic status and better studying environment at home, while students attending vocational high school had higher parent-child conflict. Students attending high school had higher self-efficacy scores, while students attending vocational high school had higher scores on delinquent behavior. The results of LISREL analyses revealed a similar pattern for high school and vocational high school students. Combined analysis indicate that friends' delinquent behavior, parent-child conflict and parental control had direct and positive effect on students' delinquency behavior. Self-efficacy had a direct and negative influence of delinquency behavior. Similar pattern was obtained for friends' delinquency behavior, in which self-efficacy had a direct and negative influence of their delinquency behavior and their parent-child conflict and parental control had direct and positive effect on their delinquency behavior. In summary, those students who had lower self-efficacy, higher parent-child conflict and parental control, and with friends who are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, had higher scores on delinquent behavior. Also, those students who had friends with lower self-efficacy scores and with higher parent-child conflict and parental control are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, which in turn influenced their delinquent behavior. Friends' delinquent behavior had the greatest influence on students' delinquent behavior indicating the role of friends in influencing delinquency among adolescents.