The current study examined the effects of the type and context of self-talk on task performance, task-post emotion, and perceived stress. Participants were 100 undergraduates in Busan. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four the experimental groups that were set by combining the narrative condition (the first-person versus non-first-person) to the content condition (self-reinforcing versus self-critic) to measure their pre and post intervention responses . For the analysis, we performed two-ways analysis of variance using the difference value of dependent variables comparing the pre and post-intervention. As a result of the analysis, we found that content condition of self-talk significantly influenced task performance, task-related confidence, emotion response, and perceived stress. That is, the self-reinforcement self-talk group showed better performance, higher task-related confidence, more positive emotion, lower negative emotion and less perceived stress than the self-critic self-talk group. The contents conditions of self-talk interacted with the narrative condition of self-talk to predict perceived stress, indicating that only non-first person/self-reinforceing self-talk group showed reduced levels of perceived stress.
This study was conducted with the aim of developing and validating a measure of the workplace bullying bystander behavior. To this end, items were developed by referring to previous studies related to workplace bullying, and subtypes were defined as pro-bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors. After confirming the validity of the content with the help of experts, a total of 31 preliminary items were composed. The final 26 questions were selected by conducting exploratory factor analysis with a survey of 288 office workers who have directly or indirectly witnessed workplace bullying over the past three years, and in this process, it was confirmed that defense behavior was distinguished into two types: Active and supportive. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with data from 518 office workers who have directly or indirectly witnessed workplace bullying over the past year, and the validity and reliability of the developed scale were confirmed. As a result of comparing the competing models to reconfirm the subtypes, it was confirmed again that active defense behavior and supportive defense behavior were distinguished. The criterion-related validity of all subtypes was confirmed by setting the criteria variables for workplace bullying behavior, altruistic behavior, pro-social behavior, fear of intervention, moral disengagement, guilt, and moral identity. Based on the result of this study, follow-up research tasks related to workplace bullying bystander behavior scale were suggested and the methods to prevent and intervene in workplace bullying utilizing workplace bullying bystander behaviors were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to translate and validate the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale(LGBIS), which is a multidimensional measure of sexual minority identity. For this, we conducted exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 201 LGBs. Identical to the original scale, eight factors were extracted (i.e., Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, Internalized Homonegativity, Difficult Process, Acceptance Concerns, Identity Superiority, Identity Centrality, and Identity Affirmation), but one item was removed. In addition, the reliabilities of the eight factors except Concealment Motivation were satisfactory. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 8-factor model had a good fit to data. Finally, criterion validity was good with other identity related scales as well as the psychological-functioning scales. In conclusion, the Korean version of the LGBIS is a valid measure of multidimensional LGB identity and consists of 8 factors and 26 items.
The purpose of this thesis is to determine the influence of variable affecting young adult’s growth after adversity to promote post-adversity growth in the counseling and treatment field. For this purpose, date were collected from 208 young adults aged 18 to 39 living in Korea and the collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 25.0 and the AMOS 26,0. The purpose of this study is to view growth after adversity as a result of positive psychological factors and to examine the influence of each of the balanced time perspective and social connectedness and the relation of the two variables on growth after adversity. Frequency analysis was performed to identify demographic characteristics of the survey subjects, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed to examine the trends of the major variables, and Pearson’s product moment correlation analysis was performed to examine the correlation between major variables. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of major variables on growth after adversity, and path analysis was performed to verify the research model, and the statistical significance of the indirect effect was confirmed using the bootstrap method. The main results of this thesis are as follows. First, among demographic variables, religion showed a significant effect on growth after adversity. Second, balanced time perspective and social connectedness tended to have an important effect on growth after adversity. Third, the result of examining the path leading to growth after adversity showed that balanced time perspective affects social connectedness and this process leads to growth after adversity. The finding of this thesis is that the balanced time perspective and social connectedness are important in order to have growth after adversity, and this suggests the necessity of developing and progressing related programs by utilizing positive factors in counseling or clinical settings.
The aim of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5(PCL-5). To this end, online surveys were conducted two times at 1-year interval with 1,077 Korean adults at time 1, and 563 Korean adults at time 2. First, as a result of confirmatory factor analysis, factor 1 was found to be not acceptable, while factor 4, 6 and 7 were found to be acceptable and showing the best model fit in the order of factor 7, 6, 4. Second, as a result of examining reliability of Korean version of PCL-5, Korean version of PCL-5 showed good reliability. Third, as a result of correlation analysis with K-PC-PTSD-5 and sub-factors of BSI-18, Korean Version of PCL-5 had positve correlation with both K-PC-PTSD-5 and BSI-18. Fourth, PTSD symptoms measured by the Korean version of PCL-5 at time 1 properly predicted PTSD, depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms at time 2. Fifth, discrimination power of PCL-5 for screening PTSD group and best cut-off score were confirmed by ROC anlaysis. As a result of the longitudinal validation of Korean version of PCL-5, it was found that this scale is a reliable and valid measure for Korean adults. This study differs from previous validation studies in that the Korean version of PCL-5 can predict not only PTSD symptoms but also PTSD-related symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and somatization, and that the best cut-off score for distinguising PTSD symptom group was confirmed.
The study investigated the relationship between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) of 508 Korean adults and their perception on justice (distributive and procedural justice for self and general others), and verified whether there is a moderating effect of age (20s versus 30s and over). A self-report survey on SES and perception on justice was conducted. Then, using the SPSS 27 and PROCESS Macro 4.0 program., a correlation analysis looking into the relationship among the study variables was performed along with the ANOVAs comparing the mean differences of study across age-groups to support the group division criteria. Next, a moderation analysis was conducted. The main results of this study are as follows. First, the participants’ SES showed a positive relationship with the sub-factors of justice perception and a negative relationship with age. Second, age had a inverse relationship on distributive justice for self and general others, and procedural justice for self, but significant relationship on procedural justice for general others. Third, when looking into the mean differences of the research variables according to age, the 20s had significantly different characteristics compared to the 30s and over, and there were no significant differences among the 30s and over group. Fourth, the moderating effect of age in the relationship between SES and perception of justice was positively significant in the case of distributive justice for self and procedural justice for general others. In the case of distributive justice for self, the positive slope of the graph in which SES predicts distributive fairness for self was steeper in the 30s and older group compared to the 20s. Regarding the procedural justice for general others, SES was not a significant predictor for the 20s. However, SES positively predicted procedural justice in the 30s and older. This study is meaningful in that it suggested age differences in their perceptions of justice by revealing the different relationships of SES and perception on justice according to age.
This purpose of this meta-summary study was to integrate the findings of the heterogeneous qualitative research on the factors influencing the sexual identity formation process of lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups in Korea. The integrative investigation of the universal or unique factors affecting the identity formation of sexual minority is important to understand their internal experiences and to support psychological adaptation. Using a qualitative meta-summary, this study systematically identified psychological and social factors that promote and impede sexual identity acceptance and integration of LGB individuals. First, a total of 9 studies were identified through research database published in Korea up to 2021. The included studies were critically evaluated by using the Critical Appraisal Screening Programme tool. A total of 179 statements were extracted from the findings of each study and 34 abstracted statements were generated. The 34 abstracted statements were categorized into four groups, psychological factors that promote or impede sexual identity formation and social factors that promote and impede it. These four main categories and corresponding factors in each category were explained. The implications and limitations were also discussed.
The purpose of this study is to understand and explore the essence of the self-care experiences of middle-aged one-person households considering their individual circumstances and situational context. In this study, 10 middle-aged people in one-person households were interviewed. The interview data were analyzed using the phenomenological analysis. In result, middle-aged one-person households considered self-care as ‘ means to protect themselves’, ‘preparation for the old age on their own’, and ‘behavior to feel present gratitude and happiness.’ Their motives for the self-care were ‘awareness of the body aging and possible disease’, ‘threat of their safety’, ‘ crisis of their livings’, ‘absence of a person who can take care of them’, ‘maintenance of their psychological health’, ‘being burned out by busy working schedules’, and ‘lessening their own and their family’s worries and anxiety.’ Their specific ways of self-care were ‘physical health care’, ‘private activities for emotional care’, and ‘meeting with people.’ Consequently, middle-aged people’s self-care had a great influence on their lives. Their self-care had a positive impact on their jobs and relationships, lessened their sense of isolation, and became comforts for their lives. Based on the results of the study, this study proposed its implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research.