The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between individual values, nature-relatedness, and happiness in a sample of Korean university students(N=224). Specially, we used Schwartz's PVQ, life satisfaction, positive affect, psychological well-being, social well-being, and Korean Happiness scale to measure values and happiness. According to the bivariate correlational analysis, generally, there were positive correlation between benevolence, self-direction, universalism, stimulation and one of 5 happiness measurements and there was negative correlation between achievement and life satisfaction. Nature-relatedness were positively related with five types of happiness measurements. According to the hierarchical regression, demographic variables(sex, religion, economic levels), value types, and nature-relatedness explained 25%~36% of variance in happiness. Value was more related with psychological well-being than life satisfaction, positive affect, social well being, Korean happiness scale. This results emphasize the importance of healthy value(benevolence, self-direction) and provision of opportunities contact with nature to promote human happiness.
Despite recent social movements to protect homosexuals’ rights in Korea, psychological research investigating attitudes toward homosexuals has been largely ignored. The present study examined Koreans’ explicit and implicit attitudes toward homosexuals and how openness is related to them. College students (N = 56) responded to questionnaires assessing explicit attitudes toward homosexuals and openness, one of the five factors of personality. They then took an Implicit Association Test designed to assess implicit attitudes toward homosexuals. We found that participants in general had more negative explicit attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implicit prejudice against gay men was also higher than lesbians. There was no participant sex difference in implicit attitudes toward gay men. However, male participants had more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians than female participants did; in fact, females’ implicit attitudes toward lesbians were not biased. While openness was negatively related only to explicit prejudice, values, one of the facets of openness, was negatively related to both explicit and implicit prejudice. This was the first study in Korea that investigated both explicit and implicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbians.
As the role of volunteers in disaster settings has been growing overtime, the present study was aimed to understand voluntary disaster workers with their burnout pattern and examine group differences in their secondary traumatic stress and world assumptions. Total of 70 voluntary workers who served for recovery from Sewol ferry disaster participated in this study. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct cluster groups on the basis of three burnout subscale scores(emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, depersonalization): Group 1 was characterized by the highest score on personal accomplishment and low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Group 2 scored the highest on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and relatively high on personal accomplishment. Group 3 was characterized by the lowest scores on three subscales. Results from tests showed that groups differed significantly on types and the period of support activities. Analysis of variance was conducted to identify further group differences. The results indicated that Group 2 scored the highest on secondary traumatic stress, while Group 1 scored the highest on worthiness of the self. Finally, the clinical implications and limitations of these results as well as suggestions for further research were discussed.
This study conducted a review of the existential and psychological perspective about the risks and safe. The risk was identified as existential task through the existential philosophy and psychology discussed were the safety regulations as existential need. As existential anxiety that is caused by unmet and insufficiency of the existential needs and the existential task that was presented to identify the subjective risk. Subjective risk as existential anxiety, and suggested that serves as a compass to advance to the completion and the facing the existential. In addition, existential anxiety as a subjective function as a signal that can identify the problem conditions that expressed phenomena. Problematic aspect of a subjective risk was suggested that it can be adjusted through a method for supplying information that can be recognized by an experienced and symmetrical state with the direction of the expressed symptoms. The attempt to determine the existence of and psychological point of view, it gave provided the underlying psychological spokesman for the analysis of human society, including the Sewol ferry of Korea-type disaster. There are also presented some implications that can be applied effectively to give more psychological approach to future risk reduction and safety enhancement. In addition, this study through the various views presented by a comprehensive existential subject of several ways to adjust the status Theme conditioning method (Theme Condition Adjustment Theory: TCAT) to establish a theoretical basis for expecting it to be that.
The purpose of the present study was to examine psychological consequences of indirect trauma exposure through the disaster news. Participants(N=439) completed some self-report questionnaires such as Posttraumatic Risk Checklist(PRC), Impact of Event Scale-Revised(IES-R), and Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale(MFODS) at 68.11(±18.47) days after the Sewol ferry disaster. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling by AMOS 23.0 program. The results showed that fear of death and peri- and post-traumatic crisis factors mediated the association of news exposure immediately after disaster and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings in this study indicated that news exposure immediately after disaster influenced fear of death which led to the peri- and post-traumatic crisis, and these crisis factors increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for future study were discussed.
The current study explored relationships of learned helplessness, depression, organizational commitment and job engagement. We investigated the mediating effects of depression between learned helplessness and organizational commitment and between learned helplessness and job engagement. Also, this study examined the moderating effects of calling between depression and organizational commitment and between depression and job engagement. we collected data from 310 military officers working at ROK Air Force air wing located at Gyeonggi-do. The results showed that depression mediated between learned helplessness and organizational commitment and between learned helplessness and job engagement, respectively. The results showed that calling moderated organizational commitment, job engagement. In the discussion section, we discussed about theoretical and practical implications of this study.
The purpose of this research is to investigate adult’s perception of elderly parents care and differences of related variables between family structures. There were 1,258 participants(age 45; male=601, female=657; 1,111=nuclear, 147=extended). The measures yielded Cronbach α=.67∼.95, inter-judger reliability= 95.1%, Kappa=.95. The results showed that, first, there were no significant differences between two family structures in terms of SES excepting academic career. Second, there were significant differences between two family structures in family relation, psychological characteristics. That is, adults in the extended family, versus those in the nuclear family, provide greater emotional support to children, sacrificed more towards children, and have greater expectations for children supporting them when they retire. Also, adults in the extended family displayed greater self-efficacy and happiness. Third, there were significant differences between two family structures in caring for elderly parents. Adults in the extended family apportioned a greater parent's allowance, and more number of meals with parents, and spent more time talking with parents, and displayed greater degree of filial piety and more caring behavior towards parents. Fourth, as for the perception of caring for elderly parents according to family structure, when adults were asked about “the best way to care for parents”, the most frequent response was providing a peace-of-mind for parents. As for “the most difficult aspect of caring for parents”, differences in opinions followed by financial difficulty were the most. As for “the best aspects of caring for parents”, the most frequent responses were good for children's upbringing and family harmony. Based on the results, suggestions for further research have been discussed.